Infertility: Types, Symptoms and Causes

Infertility: Types, Symptoms and Causes

What is Infertility?

When one cannot get pregnant after having unprotected, regular sex for six months to one year, depending on the person’s age, it is called infertility.

Infertility doesn’t necessarily mean that the man or the woman is sterile or unable to have a child ever in life, it can mean that either of the partners has a medical problem that needs to be checked out.

Almost 50% of the couples who get medical help can ultimately have a child, on their own or with medical intervention.

In some couples, no cause of infertility is found after all tests have been done. This is called unexplained infertility.


What Are the Types of Infertility?

There are two types of infertility:

Primary Infertility

 A woman who has never conceived and who is not able to get pregnant even after one year of not using any birth control.

Secondary Infertility

When a woman can’t get pregnant again after having at least one successful previous pregnancy in the past.


Read More:- Secondary Infertility: What It Means and What You Can Do?

Symptoms of Infertility

Ovulation and fertilization need to happen correctly with all steps in a certain order for a woman to get pregnant. Occasionally infertility-causing issues may be present in couples at birth, and sometimes these may develop later.

Not getting pregnant despite unprotected sex for 6 months or more is the major symptom of infertility. 

One thing that is pertinent to be mentioned is that miscarrying or being unable to carry a baby to childbirth is not a sign of infertility.


Symptoms of Infertility in Women

The symptoms of infertility in women include: 

  • Abnormal periods  Heavier or lighter bleeding than usual.
  • Irregular periods: Variable number of days between each period
  • No periods: Never having had periods or sudden stopping of periods
  • Painful periods: Unbearable and strong Back pain, pelvic pain, and cramping during the periods.

Female infertility may sometimes be related to a hormone problem too and the symptoms may include:

  • Skin changes like change in texture or more acne
  • Changes in sex drive
  • Dark and thick hair growth on the lips, chest, and chin
  • Thinning of hair
  • Unexplained Weight gain

There may be some other symptoms of  infertility causing disorders:

  • Milky white discharge from nipples 
  • Pain during sexual intercourse.


Causes of Fertility Problems in Women


  • Ovulation disorders: Lack of ovulation is the main cause of infertility in women. It means that the ovary of the woman doesn’t release an egg.  The issues which affect the release of eggs from the ovaries include hormonal disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome, Hyperprolactinemia, a condition in which women may have too much prolactin, hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroidism. All these can affect the menstrual cycle and ovulation causing infertility. Too much exercise, eating disorders, or tumors may be other causes behind this.
  • Damage to fallopian tubes: The fallopian tube carries eggs from the ovary to the user and damage can be caused to them due to inflammation resulting from pelvic inflammatory disease, usually as a result of a sexually transmitted infection, endometriosis, scar tissue, or adhesions.
  • Endometriosis: The endometrial tissue growing outside of the uterus in the condition called endometriosis can affect the function of the ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes.
  • Uterine or cervical abnormalities: The abnormalities with the cervix, polyps in the uterus, or the shape of the uterus can be one of the reasons behind infertility. Uterine fibroids may also be one of the causes of infertility as they can lead to blocking. the fallopian tubes, stopping a fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus.
  • Cancer and its treatment: Cancers especially of reproductive parts can impair female fertility as both radiation and chemotherapy may affect fertility.
  • Some other reasons include Smoking, Being overweight or underweight, age and lifestyle problems, etc.


Symptoms of Infertility in Men

Usually, the infertility symptoms in men are quite vague and may go unnoticed until a man tries to start a family.

Moreover, the symptoms of infertility in men depend on the cause of infertility and can include:

  • Change in hair growth pattern
  • Change in sexual desire or drive
  • Pain, lump, or any swelling in the testicles
  • Problems with erection and ejaculation
  • Small and firm testicles


Causes of Fertility Problems in Men

  • Abnormal sperm production or function: The most common cause for infertility in men is due to a problem with sperm due to undescended testicles, genetic deformities, health issues like diabetes, or infections such as gonorrhea, mumps, or HIV. The quality of sperm can also be affected by enlarged veins in the testes.
  • Problems with the delivery of sperm: A few sexual problems, such as premature ejaculation, certain genetic diseases, structural problems for example a blockage in the testicle, or damage or injury to the reproductive organs can be a hindrance to the traveling of the sperm.
  • Low sperm count: Having too few or no sperm in the semen.
  • Sperm Motility: The sperm don’t move as desired
  • Sperm Morphology: Abnormally formed sperm can be one of the reasons for infertility.
  • Environmental factors: Exposure to pesticides, chemicals, excessive heat, and radiation can cause issues with the sperm. Smoking, alcohol, and any other form of drug abuse marijuana, and a few medications to treat bacterial infections, high blood pressure, and depression can also influence fertility.
  • Age and weight can also play an important role in men’s fertility.
  • Cancer and its treatment: History of cancer and its treatment such as radiation or chemotherapy can also impair sperm production.


Read More:- Can Be Reverse Infertility in Women?

What is Infertility Treatment?

When discussed with Dr. Shivani Bhutani at Eva Hospital Ludhiana, she explains that the best IVF Centre in Ludhiana may result from an issue in either of the partners or a combination of factors.

Women with infertility may sometimes have irregular or absent menstrual periods or in some men with infertility, there may be signs of hormonal problems, such as changes in hair growth or sexual function. Other symptoms might sometimes not be so obvious.

 Fortunately, many safe and effective treatments are now available that can considerably improve the chances of pregnancy in couples who have been trying for a long time without any success and a couple should immediately seek the consultation of a competent best IVF Centre in Ludhiana if they are facing issues in getting pregnant. Timely medical intervention can go a long way in filling your life with the happiness and giggles of a child. 

An appointment with   Dr. Shivani Bhutani at Eva Hospital (Best IVF Centre in Ludhiana) book your appointment here.